PicoScope 9400 Series
5 GHz Oscilloscope
|Number of input channels||Four channels. All channels are identical and digitized simultaneously.|
|*Analog bandwidth (–3 dB)||Full: DC to 5 GHz
Middle: DC to 450 MHz
Narrow: DC to 100 MHz
|*Passband flatness||Full: ±1 dB to 3 GHz|
|Calculated rise time (Tr), typical||Calculated from the bandwidth.
10% to 90%: calculated from Tr = 0.35/BW
20% to 80%: calculated from Tr = 0.25/BW
Full: 10% to 90%: ≤ 70 ps, 20% to 80%: ≤ 50 ps
Middle: 10% to 90%: ≤ 780 ps, 20% to 80%: ≤ 560 ps
Narrow: 10% to 90%: ≤ 3.5 ns. 20% to 80%: ≤ 2.5 ns
|Step response, typical||Overshoot and ringing, full bandwidth: 6% to 10 ns, 3% to 400 ns, 1% thereafter|
|*RMS noise||Full: 1.8 mV, maximum, 1.6 mV, typical
Middle: 0.8 mV, maximum, 0.65 mV, typical
Narrow: 0.6 mV, maximum, 0.45 mV, typical
|Scale factors (sensitivity)||10 mV/div to 250 mV/div
Full scale is 8 vertical divisions
Adjustable in a 10-12.5-15-20-25-30-40-50-60-80-100-125-150-200-250 mV/div sequence. Also adjustable in 1% fine increments or better.
With manual or calculator data entry the increment is 0.1 mV/div.
|*DC gain accuracy||±2% of full scale. ±1.5% of full scale, typical|
|Position range||±4 divisions from center screen|
|DC offset range||Adjustable from –1 V to +1 V in 10 mV increments (coarse). Also adjustable in fine increments of 2 mV.
With manual or calculator data entry the increment is 0.01 mV for offset between –99.9 and 99.9 mV, and 0.1 mV for offset between –999.9 and 999.9 mV.
Referenced to the center of display graticule
|* Offset accuracy||±2 mV ±2% of offset setting. ±1 mV ±1% of offset setting, typical|
|Operating input voltage||±800 mV|
|Vertical zoom and position||For all input channels, waveform memories, or functions
Vertical factor: 0.01 to 100
Vertical position: ±800 divisions maximum of zoomed waveform
|Channel-to-channel crosstalk (channel isolation)||≥ 50 dB (316:1) for input frequency DC to 1 GHz
≥ 40 dB (100:1) for input frequency > 1 GHz to 3 GHz
≥ 36 dB (63:1) for input frequency > 3 GHz to ≤ 5 GHz
|Delay between channels||≤ 10 ps, typical
Between any two channels, full bandwidth, equivalent time
|ADC resolution||12 bits|
|Hardware vertical resolution||0.4 mV/LSB without averaging|
|Overvoltage protection||±1.4 V (DC + peak AC)|
|* Input impedance||(50 ±1.5) Ω. (50 ±1) Ω, typical|
|Input match||Reflections for 70 ps rise time: 10% or less, –20 dB typical|
|Input connectors||SMA female|
|Internal probe power||9.6 W maximum|
|Probe power per probe||3.3 V: 100 mA max.
12 V: 150 mA max.
|Attenuation||Attenuation factors may be entered to scale the oscilloscope for external attenuators connected to the channel inputs
Range: 0.0001:1 to 1 000 000:1
Units: Ratio or dB
Scale: Volt, Watt, Ampere, or unknown
|Timebase||Internal timebase common to all input channels.|
Full horizontal scale is 10 divisions
|Horizontal zoom and position||For all input channels, waveform memories, or functions
Horizontal factor: From 1 to 2000
Horizontal position: From 0% to 100% non-zoomed waveform
|Timebase clock accuracy||Frequency: 500 MHz
Initial set tolerance: ±10 ppm @ 25 °C ±3 °C
* Overall frequency stability: ±50 ppm over operating temperature range
|Aging||±7 ppm over 10 years @ 25 °C|
|Timebase resolution||1 ps with random equivalent-time sampling|
|* Delta time measurement accuracy||±(50 ppm * reading + 0.1% * screen width + 5 ps)|
|Pre-trigger delay||Record length ÷ current sampling rate (when delay = 0)|
|Post-trigger delay||0 to 4.28 s. Coarse increment is one horizontal scale division, fine increment is 0.1 horizontal scale division, manual or calculator increment is 0.01 horizontal scale division.|
|Channel-to-channel deskew range||±50 ns range. Coarse increment is 100 ps, fine increment is 10 ps. With manual or calculator data entry the increment is four significant digits or 1 ps.|
|Sampling modes||Real time: Captures all of the sample points used to reconstruct a waveform during a single trigger event
Random equivalent time: Acquires sample points over several trigger events, requiring the input waveform to be repetitive
Roll: Acquisition data will be displayed in a rolling fashion starting from the right side of the display and continuing to the left side of the display (while the acquisition is running)
|Segmented||Segmented memory optimizes available memory for data streams that have long dead times between activity.
Number of segments: up to 1024
Rearm time - as fast as 2 μs (minimum time between trigger events)
|Maximum sampling rate||Real time: 500 MS/s per channel simultaneously
Random equivalent time: Up to 1 TS/s or 1 ps trigger placement resolution
|Record length||Real time sampling: From 50 S/ch to 250 kS/ch for one channel, to 125 kS/ch for two channels, to 50 kS/ch for three and four channels
Random equivalent time sampling: From 500 S/ch to 250 kS/ch for one channel, to 125 kS/ch for two channels, to 50 kS/ch for three and four channels
|Duration at highest sample rate||0.5 ms for one channel, 0.25 ms for two channels, 0.125 ms for three and four channels|
|Acquisition modes||Sample (normal): Acquires first sample in decimation interval and displays results without further processing
Average: Average value of samples in decimation interval. Number of waveforms for average: 2 to 4096.
Envelope: Envelope of acquired waveforms. Minimum, Maximum or both Minimum and Maximum values acquired over one or more acquisitions. Number of acquisitions is from 2 to 4096 in ×2 sequence and continuously.
Peak detect: Largest and smallest sample in decimation interval. Minimum pulse width: 1/(sampling rate) or 2 ns @ 50 µs/div or faster for single channel.
High resolution: Averages all samples taken during an acquisition interval to create a record point. This average results in a higher-resolution, lower-bandwidth waveform. Resolution can be expanded to 12.5 bits or more, up to 16 bits.
|Trigger sources||Internal from any channel|
|Trigger mode||Freerun: Triggers automatically but not synchronized to the input in absence of trigger event. Normal (triggered): Requires trigger event for oscilloscope to trigger.
Single: SW button that triggers only once on a trigger event. Not suitable for random equivalent-time sampling
|Trigger style||Edge: Triggers on a rising and falling edge of any source from DC to 2.5 GHz
Divider: The trigger source is divided down four times (/4) before being applied to the trigger system. It has a trigger frequency range up to 5 GHz.
|Trigger holdoff mode||Time or random|
|Trigger holdoff range||Holdoff by time: Adjustable from 500 ns to 15 s in a 1-2-5-10 sequence or in 4 ns fine increments
Random: This mode varies the trigger holdoff from one acquisition to another by randomizing the time value between triggers. The randomized time values can be between the values specified in the Min Holdoff and Max Holdoff.
|Bandwidth and sensitivity||Low sensitivity: 100 mV p-p DC to 100 MHz. Increasing linearly from 100 mV p-p at 100 MHz to 200 mV p-p at 5 GHz. Pulse width: 100 ps @ 200 mV p-p typical.
* High sensitivity: 30 mV p-p DC to 100 MHz. Increasing linearly from 30 mV p-p at 100 MHz to 70 mV p-p at 5 GHz. Pulse width: 100 ps @ 70 mV p-p.
|Trigger level range||–1 V to 1 V in 10 mV increments (coarse). Also adjustable in fine increments of 1 mV.|
|Edge trigger slope||Positive: Triggers on rising edge
Negative: Triggers on falling edge
Dual slope: Triggers on both edges of the signal
|* Internal RMS trigger jitter||Combined trigger and interpolator jitter
Edge and divided trigger: 2 ps + 0.1 ppm of delay, maximum
|Persistence||Off: No persistence
Variable persistence: Time that each data point is retained on the display. Persistence time can be varied from 100 ms to 20 s.
Infinite persistence: In this mode, a waveform sample point is displayed forever.
Variable Gray Scaling: Five levels of a single color that is varied in saturation and luminosity. Refresh time can be varied from 1 s to 200 s.
Infinite Gray Scaling: In this mode, a waveform sample point is displayed forever in five levels of a single color.
Variable Color Grading: With Color Grading selected, historical timing information is represented by a temperature or spectral color scheme providing “z-axis” information about rapidly changing waveforms. Refresh time can be varied from 1 to 200 s.
Infinite Color Grading: In this mode, a waveform sample point is displayed forever by a temperature or spectral color scheme.
|Style||Dots: Displays waveforms without persistence, each new waveform record replaces the previously acquired record for a channel.
Vector: This function draws a straight line through the data points on the display. Not suited to multi-value signals such as a displayed eye diagram.
|Graticule||Full Grid, Axes with tick marks, Frame with tick marks, Off (no graticule).|
|Format||Auto: Automatically places, adds or deletes graticules as you select more or fewer waveforms to display.
Single XT: All waveforms are superimposed and are eight divisions high.
Dual YT: With two graticules, all waveforms can be four divisions high, displayed separately or superimposed.
Quad YT: With four graticules, all waveforms can be two divisions high, displayed separately or superimposed.
When you select dual or quad screen display, every waveform channel, memory and function can be placed on a specified graticule.
XY: Displays voltages of two waveforms against each other. The amplitude of the first waveform is plotted on the horizontal X axis and the amplitude of the second waveform is is plotted on the vertical Y axis.
XY + YT: Displays both XY and YT pictures. The YT format appears on the upper part of the screen, and the XY format on the lower part of the screen. The YT format display area is one screen and any displayed waveforms are superimposed.
XY + 2YT: Displays both YT and XY pictures. The YT format appears on the upper part of the screen, and the XY format on the lower part of the screen. The YT format display area is divided into two equal screens.
Tandem: Displays graticules to the left and to the right.
|View Color||You may choose a default color selection, or select your own color set. Different colors are used for displaying selected items: background, channels, functions, waveform memories, FFTs, TDR/TDTs, and histograms.|
|Trace annotation||The instrument gives you the ability to add an identifying label, bearing your own text, to a waveform display. For each waveform, you can create multiple labels and turn them all on or all off. Also, you can position them on the waveform by dragging or by specifying an exact horizontal position.|
|Management||Store and recall setups, waveforms and user mask files to any drive on your PC. Storage capacity is limited only by disk space.|
|File extensions||Waveform files:
.wfm for binary format
.txt for verbose format (text)
.txty for Y values formats (text)
Database files: .wdb
Setup files: .set
User mask files: .pcm
|Operating system||Microsoft Windows 7, 8 and 10, 32-bit and 64-bit.|
|Waveform save/recall||Up to four waveforms may be stored into the waveform memories (M1 to M4), and then recalled for display.|
|Save to/recall from disk||You can save or recall your acquired waveforms to or from any drive on the PC. To save a waveform, use the standard Windows Save as dialog box. From this dialog box you can create subdirectories and waveform files, or overwrite existing waveform files.
You can load, into one of the Waveform Memories, a file with a waveform you have previously saved and then recall it for display.
|Save/recall setups||The instrument can store complete setups in the memory and then recall them.|
|Screen image||You can copy a screen image into the clipboard with the following formats: Full Screen, Full Window, Client Part, Invert Client Part, Oscilloscope Screen and Oscilloscope Screen.|
|Autoscale||Pressing the Autoscale key automatically adjusts the vertical channels, the horizontal scale factors, and the trigger level for a display appropriate to the signals applied to the inputs.
The Autoscale feature requires a repetitive signal with a frequency greater than 100 Hz, duty cycle greater than 0.2%, amplitudes greater than 100 mV p-p. Autoscale is operative only for relatively stable input signals.
|Marker type||X-Marker: vertical bars (measure time).
Y-Marker: horizontal bars (measure volts).
XY-Marker: waveform markers.
|Marker measurements||Absolute, Delta, Volt, Time, Frequency, Slope.|
|Marker motion||Independent: both markers can be adjusted independently.
Paired: both markers can be adjusted together.
|Ratiometric measurements||Provide ratiometric measurements between measured and reference values. These measurements give results in such ratiometric units as %, dB, and degrees.|
|Automated measurements||Up to ten simultaneous measurements are supported at the same time.|
|Automatic parametric||48 automatic measurements available.|
|Amplitude measurements||Maximum, Minimum, Top, Base, Peak-Peak, Amplitude, Middle, Mean, Cycle Mean, DC RMS, Cycle DC RMS, AC RMS, Cycle AC RMS, Positive Overshoot, Negative Overshoot, Area, Cycle Area.|
|Timing measurements||Period, Frequency, Positive Width, Negative Width, Rise Time, Fall Time, Positive Duty Cycle, Negative Duty Cycle, Positive Crossing, Negative Crossing, Burst Width, Cycles, Time at Maximum, Time at Minimum, Positive Jitter p-p, Positive Jitter RMS, Negative Jitter p-p, Negative Jitter RMS.|
|Inter-signal measurements||Delay (8 options), Phase Deg, Phase Rad, Phase %, Gain, Gain dB.|
|FFT measurements||FFT Magnitude, FFT Delta Magnitude, THD, FFT Frequency, FFT Delta Frequency.|
|Measurement statistics||Displays current, minimum, maximum, mean and standard deviation on any displayed waveform measurements.|
|Method of top-base definition||Histogram, Min/Max, or User-Defined (in absolute voltage).|
|Thresholds||Upper, middle and lower horizontal bars settable in percentage, voltage or divisions. Standard thresholds are 10–50–90% or 20–50–80%.|
|Margins||Any region of the waveform may be isolated for measurement using left and right margins (vertical bars).|
|Measurement mode||Repetitive or Single-shot.|
|Waveform math||Up to four math waveforms can be defined and displayed using math functions F1 to F4|
|Categories and math operators||Arithmetic: Add, Subtract, Multiply, Divide, Ceil, Floor, Fix, Round, Absolute, Invert, Common, Rescale.
Algebra: Exponentiation (e), Exponentiation (10), Exponentiation (a), Logarithm (e), Logarithm (10), Logarithm (a), Differentiate, Integrate, Square, Square Root, Cube, Power (a), Inverse, Square Root of the Sum.
Trigonometry: Sine, Cosine, Tangent, Cotangent, ArcSine, Arc Cosine, ArcTangent, Arc Cotangent, Hyperbolic Sine, Hyperbolic Cosine, Hyperbolic Tangent, Hyperbolic Cotangent.
FFT: Complex FFT, FFT Magnitude, FFT Phase, FFT Real part, FFT Imaginary part, Complex Inverse FFT, FFT Group Delay. Bit operator: AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR, XNOR, NOT.
Miscellaneous: Autocorrelation, Correlation, Convolution, Track, Trend, Linear Interpolation, Sin(x)/x Interpolation, Smoothing.
Formula editor: Build math waveforms using the Formula Editor control window.
|Operands||Any channel, waveform memory, math function, spectrum, or constant can be selected as a source for one of two operands.|
|FFT||FFT frequency span: Frequency Span = Sample Rate / 2 = Record Length / (2 × Time base Range) FFT frequency resolution: Frequency Resolution = Sample Rate / Record Length
FFT windows: The built-in filters (Rectangular, Hamming, Hann, Flattop, Blackman–Harris and Kaiser–Bessel) allow optimization of frequency resolution, transients, and amplitude accuracy.
FFT measurements: Marker measurements can be made on frequency, delta frequency, magnitude, and delta magnitude. Marker measurements can be made on frequency, delta frequency, magnitude, and delta magnitude.
Automated FFT Measurements include: FFT Magnitude, FFT Delta Magnitude, THD, FFT Frequency, and FFT Delta Frequency.
|Histogram axis||Vertical, Horizontal or Off.
Both vertical and horizontal histograms, with periodically updated measurements, allow statistical distributions to be analyzed over any region of the signal.
|Histogram measurement set||Scale, Offset, Hits in Box, Waveforms, Peak Hits, Pk-Pk, Median, Mean, Standard Deviation, Mean ±1 Std Dev, Mean ±2 Std Dev, Mean ±3 Std Dev, Min, Max-Max, Max.|
|Histogram window||The histogram window determines which part of the database is used to plot the histogram. You can set the size of the histogram window to be any size that you want within the horizontal and vertical scaling limits of the scope.|
|Eye diagram||The PicoScope 9400 can automatically characterize an NRZ and RZ eye pattern. Measurements are based upon statistical analysis of the waveform.|
|NRZ measurement set||
X: Area, Bit Rate, Bit Time, Crossing Time, Cycle Area, Duty Cycle Distortion (%, s), Eye Width (%, s), Fall Time, Frequency, Jitter (p-p, RMS), Period, Rise Time
|RZ measurement set||
X: Area, Bit Rate, Bit Time, Cycle Area, Eye Width (%, s), Fall Time, Jitter P-p (Fall, Rise), Jitter RMS (Fall, Rise), Negative Crossing, Positive Crossing, Positive Duty Cycle, Pulse Symmetry, Pulse Width, Rise Time
|Mask test||Acquired signals are tested for fit outside areas defined by up to eight polygons. Any samples that fall within the polygon boundaries result in test failures. Masks can be loaded from disk, or created automatically or manually.|
|Mask creation||Create the following masks: Standard predefined Mask, Automask, Mask saved on disk, Create new mask, Edit any mask.|
|Standard mask||Standard predefined optical or standard electrical masks can be created.
SONET/SDH: OC1/STMO (51.84 Mb/s) to FEC 2666 (2.6666 Gb/s)
Fibre Channel: FC133 Electrical (132.8 Mb/s) to FC2125E Abs Gamma Tx.mask (2.125 Gb/s) Ethernet: 100BASE-BX10 (125 Mb/s) to 3.125 Gb/s 10GBase-CX4 Absolute TP2 (3.125 Gb/s) Infiniband: 2.5G InfiniBand Cable mask (2.5 Gb/s) to 2.5G InfiniBand Receiver mask (2.5 Gb/s) InfiniBand (2.5 Gb/s)
XAUI: 3.125 Gb/s XAUI Far End (3.125 Gb/s) to XAUI-E Near (3.125 Gb/s)
ITU G.703: DS1, 100 Ω twisted pair (1.544 Mb/s) to 155 Mb 1 Inv, 75 Ω coax (155.520 Mb/s) ANSI T1/102: DS1, 100 Ω twisted pair, (1.544 Mb/s) to STS3, 75 Ω coax, (155.520 Mb/s)
RapidIO: RapidIO Serial Level 1, 1.25G Rx (1.25 Gb/s) to RapidIO Serial Level 1, 3.125G Tx SR (3.125 Gb/s)
PCI Express: R1.0a 2.5G Add-in Card Transmitter Non-Transition bit mask (2.5 Gb/s) to R1.1 2.5G Transmitter Transition bit mask (2.5 Gb/s) Serial ATA: Ext Length, 1.5G 250 Cycle, Rx Mask (1.5 Gb/s) to Gen1m, 3.0G 5 Cycle, Tx Mask (3 Gb/s)
|Mask margin||Available for industry-standard mask testing|
|Automask creation||Masks are created automatically for single-valued voltage signals. Automask specifies both delta X and delta Y tolerances. The failure actions are identical to those of limit testing.|
|Data collected during test||Total number of waveforms examined, number of failed samples, number of hits within each polygon boundary|
|Calibrator output mode||DC, 1 kHz square, meander with frequency from 15.266 Hz to 500 kHz.|
|Output DC level||Adjustable from –1 V to +1 V into 50 Ω. Coarse increment: 50 mV, fine increment: 1 mV.|
|* Output DC level accuracy||±1 mV ±0.5% of output DC level|
|Output impedance||50 Ω nominal|
|Rise/fall time||150 ns, typical|
|Output connectors||SMA female|
|Timing||Positive transition equivalent to acquisition trigger point|
|Low level||(–0.2 ±0.1) V. Measured into 50 Ω.|
|Amplitude||(900 ±200) mV. Measured into 50 Ω.|
|Rise time||10% to 90%: ≤ 0.45 ns
20% to 80%: ≤ 0.3 ns
|RMS jitter||2 ps or less|
|Output delay||4 ±1 ns|
|Output coupling||DC coupled|
|Output connectors||SMA female|
|Power supply voltage||+12 V ±5%|
|Power supply current||PicoScope 9404: 2.6 A max|
|Protection||Auto shutdown on excess or reverse voltage|
|AC-DC adaptor||Universal adaptor supplied|
|PC connection||USB 2.0 (high speed). Also compatible with USB 3.0. LAN.|
|Dimensions||Width: 245 mm
Height: 60 mm
Depth: 232 mm
|Net weight||1.4 kg (PicoScope 9404)|
|Temperature||Operating: +5 °C to +40 °C for normal operation, +15 °C to +25 °C for quoted accuracy. Storage: –20 °C to +50 °C.|
|Humidity||Operating: Up to 85 %RH (non-condensing) at +25 °C. Storage: Up to 95 %RH (non-condensing).|
* Specifications marked with (*) are checked in the Performance Verification chapter of the User's Guide.
 These specifications are valid after a 30-minute warm-up period and ±2 °C from firmware calibration temperature.